No, since it is not consumed like food or drink through the mouth.
What the Scholars Said
Imam Kasani: “That which reaches the body cavity (stomach) or the brain through normal channels (makhariq al-asliyya) such as the nose, ears and anus, in that one sniffed, entered something through the anus, or infused drops in the ear, and it reached the stomach or the brain, then one’s fast will be invalidated.” (Bada’i al-Sana’i 2:93)
Even if the ingredients in an injection contain some elements that provide nourishment to the body, it is usually so miniscule that it is similar to the amount of water that is absorbed by your tongue or goes down your throat without you swallowing when you rinse your mouth for wudu. The Prophet Muhammad clarified that rinsing your mouth with water does not break your fast, so medicinal injections are even further from that since they are not taken through the mouth.
Shaykh Mustafa Umar