It is forbidden to fast on the two days of Eid: Al-Fitr on the 1st of Shawwal and al-Adha on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah. It is prohibited [tahrimi] to fast on the 11th, 12th, and 13th of Dhul Hijjah, even if there is some reason to do so such as wanting to make up a fast from Ramadan or if this day happens to fall on a Monday or Thursday.
What the Prophet Said
“The most beloved of fasting to Allah is the fast of Dawud; he used to fast one day and not the next.” – you will end up fasting either on fri or sat alone so the prohibition could not have been absolute
‘None of you should fast on a Friday unless he fasts the day before or the day after.’” (Narrated by al-Bukhari, 1849, Muslim, 1929)
“Do not single out the night of Jumu’ah [i.e.Thursday night] from among other nights for praying qiyam al-layl, and do not single out Friday from among other days for fasting, unless it is a fast that one of you regularly observes.” (Muslim, al-Siyam, 1930)
Juwayriyah bint al-Harith (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered upon her on a Friday when she was fasting. He asked her, “Did you fast yesterday?” She said, “No.” He asked, “Are you going to fast tomorrow?” She said, “No.” He said, “Then break your fast.” Hammad ibn al-Ja’d said, “I heard Qatadah say, Abu Ayyub told me that Juwayriyah spoke to him and he told her to stop her fast and she did so.” (Narrated by al-Bukhari, al-Sawm, 1850)
al-Tirmidhi (744), Abu Dawud (2421) and Ibn Majah (1726) from ‘Abd-Allah ibn Busr, from his sister, that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not fast on Saturdays apart from days when you are obliged to fast. If any one of you cannot find anything other than grape stalks or the twigs of a tree, let him chew it (to make sure that he is not fasting).” Classed as sahih by al-Albani in al-Irwa (960).
What the Scholars Said
There are reports from the Prophet that you should not fast on Friday or Saturday alone. Imam Abu Hanifah said that these prohibitions were in the beginning of Islam and were then abrogated, so it is allowed to fast on those days, even if there is no other reason to do so. [al-Badai’ as-Sanai’ 2:79]
Ibn Qudamah said: “It is makruh to single out the day of Friday for fasting , unless that coincides with a fast which one usually observes, such as a person who fasts alternate days, and a day that he fasts coincides with Friday, or a person who has the habit of fasting on the first or last day of the month, or the middle day of the month.” (al-Mughni, vol. 3, p. 53) Ibn Qudamah (may Allah have mercy on him) said in al-Mughni (3/52): “Our companions said: It is makruh to single out Saturday for fasting … what is makruh is singling out that day. If he fasts another day along with it, then it is not makruh, because of the hadith of Abu Hurayrah and Juwayriyah. If it coincides with a day that a person regularly fasts, it is not makruh.”
Al-Nawawi said: “Our companions (i.e. the Shafi’is) said: it is makruh to single out the day of Friday for fasting, but if one joins it with the day before or the day after, or it coincides with a day which he habitually fasts, or he vowed to fast the day that his sick loved one was cured, or the day So and So returns, and that day happens to be a Friday, then it is not makruh (al-Majmu’ Sharh al-Muhadhdhab, vol. 6, p. 479)
Shaykh al-Islam (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “The Sunnah says that it is makruh to single out Rajab for fasting , and it is makruh to single out Friday (for fasting).” (al-Fatawa al-Kubra, vol. 6, p. 180)
“It is permissible for a Muslim to fast on a Friday to make up a day from Ramadan, even if he fasts the Friday on its own.” (Fatwa al-Lajnah al-Daimah, vol. 10, p. 347)
Abu ‘Isa al-Tirmidhi said: “This is a hasan hadith. What is makruh in this case is for a man to single out Saturday for fasting, because the Jews venerate Saturday.”
One theory why: The scholars said: The reason why it is forbidden is that Friday is a day of du’aa’, dhikr and worship, such as ghusl, going to the prayer early and waiting for the prayer, listening to the khutbah and reciting a lot of dhikr after it, because Allaah says: “Then when the (Jumu‘ah) Salaah (prayer) is ended, you may disperse through the land, and seek the Bounty of Allaah (by working), and remember Allaah much” [al-Jumu’ah 62:10]. And there are other acts of worship to be done on this day, so it is mustahabb not to fast then, so that one will have more energy to do these duties and perform them in an energetic manner and be happy to do them and enjoy them without feeling bored or tired. (MU: weak response) If it is said: If that was the case, the prohibition would still apply to fasting the day before or the day after, because the reason still applies, the response to that is that he will attain reward for fasting the day before or the day after, which will make up for any shortfall in his duties on Friday that occurs because of his fasting.
Second theory: And it was said that the reason for this prohibition is lest it be thought that it is obligatory. (MU: but it should be that thinking there is more reward since it is a Friday) This is a weak view which is contradicted by the fact that it is recommended to fast on Mondays, so no attention should be paid to this unlikely notion. (MU: weak) As for Saturday, it is makrooh to single it out for fasting. The reason for that is that when a person fasts he becomes weak and he omits some things that he used to do, so he becomes like the Jews who do not work on Saturday. because fasting makes one thirsty and hungry, so he would be like the Jews in not working on this day.
(MU: weak) As for Saturday, it is makrooh to single it out for fasting. The reason for that is that when a person fasts he becomes weak and he omits some things that he used to do, so he becomes like the Jews who do not work on Saturday. because fasting makes one thirsty and hungry, so he would be like the Jews in not working on this day.
Shaykh Mustafa Umar